Epidemiologists have been gathering evidence concerning increased cardiovascular mortality rate that has been rising gradually for the past fifty years, they believe environmental factors are playing a key role in influencing the mortality and the highly suspected factor is the hard water. The world health organization observe hard water as water with high mineral content, the predominant metallic ions in hard water are calcium and magnesium but they are also small quantities of other polyvalent metallic ions such as iron, aluminum, manganese, barium, and zinc that play part in the hardness of the water. The water filtration is a method of measuring water hardness and is the ability of the water to react with soap, where hard water is determined through its poor ability to produce foam. Calcium carbonate is the main metallic ion considered when categorizing water hardness, soft water has calcium carbonate below 60mg/l where with calcium carbonate 60-120mg/l is considered moderate hard while hard water has between 120-180 mg/l . Drinking water treated with reverse osmosis is an advantage, this includes mineral used e.g calcium, magnesium and are essential minerals and are good for human health, human need calcium especially women and old people to supplement body calcium that is needed to optimize bone density, although no compelling evidence insufficient calcium is associated with kidney stones(nephrolithiasis), hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance and some other disease, magnesium is need by the body to facilitate the production of cellular enzymes which are mainly involved in energy metabolism in the body, inadequate magnesium has been associated with hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia and pre-eclampsia (gestation hypertension)which is treated using magnesium salt. The body can only utilize these minerals at a certain amount and consuming them in excesses such as in hard water or deficient supply can lead to health problems. This article therefore has gathered some essential information regarding the health effects of consuming excess minerals that are mainly found in hard water.
Consuming excess calcium salt in hard water may not be dangerous to healthy individuals because they are protected from excess calcium intake by intestinal absorption and other elimination mechanisms, here the excess calcium is excreted by the kidney, however, for people with the renal problem (kidney issues) as well as those with the milk-alkali syndrome are more at risk of excess calcium intake, therefore, the need for concern of consuming hard water.
In the case of excess magnesium intake present in hard water has major health risks on individuals with renal insufficiency, also important to note is that increased intake of magnesium can lead to temporary bowel change which can lead to diarrhea but this is highly adaptable, but a people with no kidney problems rarely experience this change in the bowel, furthermore, taking water with excess magnesium and sulfate can cause laxative effects though there is no enough literature to support this claim, some epediomological studies have reported a negative association between cardiovascular mortality and consuming water magnesium, although the relationship has been termed as weak, it is related to well-known effects of magnesium to cardiovascular functions, however, the was no association between consuming hard water rich in magnesium and calcium and myocardial infarction. These are the main health concerns about the drinking of hard water. Check out this blog to get more enlightened on impacts of drinking hard water: https://www.britannica.com/technology/water-supply-system.